SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT CONFERENCE


Sustainable Development and the Environment Conference is one of the leading research topics in the international research conference domain. Sustainable Development and the Environment is a conference track under the Architecture and Urban Planning Conference which aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Architecture and Urban Planning.

internationalconference.net provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of (Architecture and Urban Planning).

Sustainable Development and the Environment is not just a call for academic papers on the topic; it can also include a conference, event, symposium, scientific meeting, academic, or workshop.

You are welcome to SUBMIT your research paper or manuscript to Sustainable Development and the Environment Conference Track will be held at “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Rome, Italy in December 2019” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in London, United Kingdom in February 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Barcelona, Spain in April 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Istanbul, Turkey in May 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in San Francisco, United States in June 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Paris, France in July 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in New York, United States in August 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Tokyo, Japan in September 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Zürich, Switzerland in September 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Barcelona, Spain in October 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in San Francisco, United States in November 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Singapore, Singapore in November 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Bangkok, Thailand in December 2020” - “Architecture and Urban Planning Conference in Paris, France in December 2020” .

Sustainable Development and the Environment is also a leading research topic on Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, Zenedo, OpenAIRE, BASE, WorldCAT, Sherpa/RoMEO, Elsevier, Scopus, Web of Science.

V. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 12 - 13, 2019
ROME, ITALY

VI. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

FEBRUARY 13 - 14, 2020
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

VII. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

APRIL 15 - 16, 2020
BARCELONA, SPAIN

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline March 16, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC04ES
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

VIII. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

MAY 11 - 12, 2020
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline April 01, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC05TR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

IX. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

JUNE 04 - 05, 2020
SAN FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline May 06, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC06US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

X. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

JULY 20 - 21, 2020
PARIS, FRANCE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline June 19, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC07FR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XI. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

AUGUST 10 - 11, 2020
NEW YORK, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline July 10, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC08US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XII. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

SEPTEMBER 10 - 11, 2020
TOKYO, JAPAN

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline August 10, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC09JP
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XIII. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

SEPTEMBER 17 - 18, 2020
ZÜRICH, SWITZERLAND

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline August 17, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC09CH
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XIV. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

OCTOBER 22 - 23, 2020
BARCELONA, SPAIN

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline September 22, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC10ES
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XV. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 05 - 06, 2020
SAN FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 05, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC11US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XVI. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 05 - 06, 2020
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 05, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC11TR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XVII. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 19 - 20, 2020
SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 19, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC11SG
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XVIII. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 17 - 18, 2020
BANGKOK, THAILAND

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline November 17, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC12TH
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XIX. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 28 - 29, 2020
PARIS, FRANCE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline November 14, 2019
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline November 28, 2019
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline November 26, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20AUPC12FR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder
FINISHED

I. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

MARCH 19 - 20, 2019
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

FINISHED

III. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

AUGUST 21 - 22, 2019
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

FINISHED

IV. INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING CONFERENCE

OCTOBER 08 - 09, 2019
NEW YORK, UNITED STATES

Architecture and Urban Planning Conference Call For Papers are listed below:

Previously Published Papers on "Sustainable Development and the Environment Conference"

  • Effect of Sodium Aluminate on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer at Elevated Temperatures
    Authors: Ji Hoi Heo, Jun Seong Park, Hyo Kim, Keywords: Compressive strength, fly ash based geopolymer, microstructure development, sodium aluminate. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3462105 Abstract: Geopolymer is an inorganic material synthesized by alkali activation of source materials rich in soluble SiO2 and Al2O3. Many researches have studied the effect of aluminum species on the synthesis of geopolymer. However, it is still unclear about the influence of Al additives on the properties of geopolymer. The current study identified the role of the Al additive on the thermal performance of fly ash based geopolymer and observing the microstructure development of the composite. NaOH pellets were dissolved in water for 14 M (14 moles/L) sodium hydroxide solution which was used as an alkali activator. The weight ratio of alkali activator to fly ash was 0.40. Sodium aluminate powder was employed as an Al additive and added in amounts of 0.5 wt.% to 2 wt.% by the weight of fly ash. The mixture of alkali activator and fly ash was cured in a 75°C dry oven for 24 hours. Then, the hardened geopolymer samples were exposed to 300°C, 600°C and 900°C for 2 hours, respectively. The initial compressive strength after oven curing increased with increasing sodium aluminate content. It was also observed in SEM results that more amounts of geopolymer composite were synthesized as sodium aluminate was added. The compressive strength increased with increasing heating temperature from 300°C to 600°C regardless of sodium aluminate addition. It was consistent with the ATR-FTIR results that the peak position related to asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-T (T: Si or Al) shifted to higher wavenumber as the heating temperature increased, indicating the further geopolymer reaction. In addition, geopolymer sample with higher content of sodium aluminate showed better compressive strength. It was also reflected on the IR results by more shift of the peak position assigned to Si-O-T toward the higher wavenumber. However, the compressive strength decreased after being exposed to 900°C in all samples. The degree of reduction in compressive strength was decreased with increasing sodium aluminate content. The deterioration in compressive strength was most severe in the geopolymer sample without sodium aluminate additive, while the samples with sodium aluminate addition showed better thermal durability at 900°C. This is related to the phase transformation with the occurrence of nepheline phase at 900°C, which was most predominant in the sample without sodium aluminate. In this work, it was concluded that sodium aluminate could be a good additive in the geopolymer synthesis by showing the improved compressive strength at elevated temperatures.
  • Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I
    Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas, Keywords: Chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.
  • Measurement and Evaluation of Outdoor Lighting Environment at Night in Residential Community in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou
    Authors: Jiantao Weng, Yujie Zhao, Keywords: Residential community, lighting environment, night, field measurement. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: With the improvement of living quality and demand for nighttime activities in China, the current situation of outdoor lighting environment at night needs to be assessed. Lighting environment at night plays an important role to guarantee night safety. Two typical residential communities in Hangzhou were selected. A comprehensive test method of outdoor lighting environment at night was established. The road, fitness area, landscape, playground and entrance were included. Field measurements and questionnaires were conducted in these two residential communities. The characteristics of residents’ habits and the subjective evaluation on different aspects of outdoor lighting environment at night were collected via questionnaire. A safety evaluation system on the outdoor lighting environment at night in the residential community was established. The results show that there is a big difference in illumination in different areas. The lighting uniformities of roads cannot meet the requirement of lighting standard in China. Residents pay more attention to the lighting environment of the fitness area and road than others. This study can provide guidance for the design and management of outdoor lighting environment at night.
  • Behavioral Response of Dogs to Interior Environment: An Exploratory Study on Design Parameters for Designing Dog Boarding Centers in Indian Context
    Authors: M. R. Akshaya, Veena Rao, Keywords: Behavioral response, design parameters, dog boarding centers, interior environment. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3299477 Abstract: Pet population in India is increasing phenomenally owing to the changes in urban lifestyle with increasing number of single professionals, single parents, delayed parenthood etc. The animal companionship as a means of reducing stress levels, deriving emotional support, and unconditional love provided by dogs are a few reasons attributed for increasing pet ownership. The consequence is the booming of the pet care products and dog care centers catering to the different requirements of rearing the pets. Dog care centers quite popular in tier 1 metros of India cater to the requirement of the dog owners providing space for the dogs in absence of the owner. However, it is often reported that the absence of the owner leads to destructive and exploratory behavior issues; the main being the anxiety disorders. In the above context, it becomes imperative for a designer to design dog boarding centers that help in reducing the separation anxiety in dogs keeping in mind the different interior design parameters. An exploratory research with focus group discussion is employed involving a group of dog owners, behaviorists, proprietors of day care as well as boarding centers, and veterinarians to understand their perception on the significance of different interior parameters of color, texture, ventilation, aroma therapy and acoustics as a means of reducing the stress levels in dogs sent to the boarding centers. The data collected is organized as thematic networks thus enabling the listing of the interior design parameters that needs to be considered in designing dog boarding centers. 
  • Traditional Sustainable Architecture Techniques and Its Applications in Contemporary Architecture: Case Studies of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo and Sana'a, Cities in Egypt and Yemen
    Authors: Ahmed S. Attia, Keywords: Islamic context, cultural environment, natural environment, Islamic House, low-technology, mud brick, vernacular and traditional architecture. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3298687 Abstract: This paper includes a study of modern sustainable architectural techniques and elements that are originally found in vernacular and traditional architecture, particularly in the Arab region. Courtyards, Wind Catchers, and Mashrabiya, for example, are elements that have been developed in contemporary architecture using modern technology to create sustainable architecture designs. An analytical study of the topic will deal with some examples of the Islamic House in Fatimid Cairo city in Egypt, analyzing its elements and their relationship to the environment, in addition to the examples in southern Egypt (Nubba) of sustainable architecture systems, and traditional houses in Sana'a city, Yemen, using earth resources of mud bricks and other construction materials. In conclusion, a comparative study between traditional and contemporary techniques will be conducted to confirm that it is possible to achieve sustainable architecture through the use of low-technology in buildings in Arab regions.
  • Restoring, Revitalizing and Recovering Brazilian Rivers: Application of the Concept to Small Basins in the City of São Paulo, Brazil
    Authors: Juliana C. Alencar, Monica Ferreira do Amaral Porto, Keywords: Sustainable drainage, river restoration, river revitalization, river recovery. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.2643649 Abstract: Watercourses in Brazilian urban areas are constantly being degraded due to the unplanned use of the urban space; however, due to the different contexts of land use and occupation in the river watersheds, different intervention strategies are required to requalify them. When it comes to requalifying watercourses, we can list three main techniques to fulfill this purpose: restoration, revitalization and recovery; each one being indicated for specific contexts of land use and occupation in the basin. In this study, it was demonstrated that the application of these three techniques to three small basins in São Paulo city, listing the aspects involved in each of the contexts and techniques of requalification. For a protected watercourse within a forest park, renaturalization was proposed, where the watercourse is preserved in a state closer to the natural one. For a watercourse in an urban context that still preserves open spaces for its maintenance as a landscape element, an intervention was proposed following the principles of revitalization, integrating the watercourse with the landscape and the population. In the case of a watercourse in a harder context, only recovery was proposed, since the watercourse is found under the road system, which makes it difficult to integrate it into the landscape.
  • Effects of Increased Green Surface on a Densely Built Urban Fabric: The Case of Budapest
    Authors: Viktória Sugár, Orsolya Frick, Gabriella Horváth, A. Bendegúz Vöröss, Péter Leczovics, Géza Baráth, Keywords: Urban greenery, green roof, green wall, green surface potential, sustainable city, oxygen production, carbon-dioxide reduction, geographical information system, GIS. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.2643630 Abstract: Urban greenery has multiple positive effects both on the city and its residents. Apart from the visual advantages, it changes the micro-climate by cooling and shading, also increasing vapor and oxygen, reducing dust and carbon-dioxide content at the same time. The above are all critical factors of livability of an urban fabric. Unfortunately, in a dense, historical district there are restricted possibilities to build green surfaces. The present study collects and systemizes the applicable green solutions in the case of a historical downtown district of Budapest. The study contains a GIS-based measurement of the eligible surfaces for greenery, and also calculates the potential of oxygen production, carbon-dioxide reduction and cooling effect of an increased green surface.  It can be concluded that increasing the green surface has measurable effects on a densely built urban fabric, including air quality, micro-climate and other environmental factors.
  • Proposal of Blue and Green Infrastructure for the Jaguaré Stream Watershed, São Paulo, Brazil
    Authors: Juliana C. Alencar, Monica Ferreira do Amaral Porto, Keywords: Blue and green infrastructure, sustainable drainage, urban waters, ecosystem services. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.2643531 Abstract: The blue-green infrastructure in recent years has been pointed out as a possibility to increase the environmental quality of watersheds. The regulation ecosystem services brought by these areas are many, such as the improvement of the air quality of the air, water, soil, microclimate, besides helping to control the peak flows and to promote the quality of life of the population. This study proposes a blue-green infrastructure scenario for the Jaguaré watershed, located in the western zone of the São Paulo city in Brazil. Based on the proposed scenario, it was verified the impact of the adoption of the blue and green infrastructure in the control of the peak flow of the basin, the benefits for the avifauna that are also reflected in the flora and finally, the quantification of the regulation ecosystem services brought by the adoption of the scenario proposed. A survey of existing green areas and potential areas for expansion and connection of these areas to form a network in the watershed was carried out. Based on this proposed new network of green areas, the peak flow for the proposed scenario was calculated with the help of software, ABC6. Finally, a survey of the ecosystem services contemplated in the proposed scenario was made. It was possible to conclude that the blue and green infrastructure would provide several regulation ecosystem services for the watershed, such as the control of the peak flow, the connection frame between the forest fragments that promoted the environmental enrichment of these fragments, improvement of the microclimate and the provision of leisure areas for the population.
  • Harmonizing Spatial Plans: A Methodology to Integrate Sustainable Mobility and Energy Plans to Promote Resilient City Planning
    Authors: B. Sanchez, D. Zambrana-Vasquez, J. Fresner, C. Krenn, F. Morea, L. Mercatelli, Keywords: Harmonized planning, spatial planning, sustainable energy, sustainable mobility, SECAP, SUMP. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.1474409 Abstract: Local administrations are facing established targets on sustainable development from different disciplines at the heart of different city departments. Nevertheless, some of these targets, such as CO2 reduction, relate to two or more disciplines, as it is the case of sustainable mobility and energy plans (SUMP & SECAP/SEAP). This opens up the possibility to efficiently cooperate among different city departments and to create and develop harmonized spatial plans by using available resources and together achieving more ambitious goals in cities. The steps of the harmonization processes developed result in the identification of areas to achieve common strategic objectives. Harmonization, in other words, helps different departments in local authorities to work together and optimize the use or resources by sharing the same vision, involving key stakeholders, and promoting common data assessment to better optimize the resources. A methodology to promote resilient city planning via the harmonization of sustainable mobility and energy plans is presented in this paper. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a representative city engaged in an innovation process in efficient spatial planning is used as a case study. The harmonization process of sustainable mobility and energy plans covers identifying matching targets between different fields, developing different spatial plans with dual benefit and common indicators guaranteeing the continuous improvement of the harmonized plans. The proposed methodology supports local administrations in consistent spatial planning, considering both energy efficiency and sustainable mobility. Thus, municipalities can use their human and economic resources efficiently. This guarantees an efficient upgrade of land use plans integrating energy and mobility aspects in order to achieve sustainability targets, as well as to improve the wellbeing of its citizens.
  • Accessible Facilities in Home Environment for Elderly Family Members in Sri Lanka
    Authors: M. A. N. Rasanjalee Perera, Keywords: Aging population, elderly care, home environment, housing facilities. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.1317442 Abstract: The world is facing several problems due to increasing elderly population. In Sri Lanka, along with the complexity of the modern society and structural and functional changes of the family, “caring for elders” seems as an emerging social problem. This situation may intensify as the county is moving into a middle income society. Seeking higher education and related career opportunities, and urban living in modern housing are new trends, through which several problems are generated. Among many issues related with elders, “lack of accessible and appropriate facilities in their houses as well as public buildings” can be identified as a major problem. This study argues that welfare facilities provided for the elderly people, particularly in the home environment, in the country are not adequate. Modern housing features such as bathrooms, pantries, lobbies, and leisure areas etc. are questionable as to whether they match with elders’ physical and mental needs. Consequently, elders have to face domestic accidents and many other difficulties within their living environments. Records of hospitals in the country also proved this fact. Therefore, this study tries to identify how far modern houses are suited with elders’ needs. The study further questioned whether “aging” is a considerable matter when people are buying, planning and renovating houses. A randomly selected sample of 50 houses were observed and 50 persons were interviewed around the Maharagama urban area in Colombo district to obtain primary data, while relevant secondary data and information were used to have a depth analysis. The study clearly found that none of the houses included to the sample are considering elders’ needs in planning, renovating, or arranging the home. Instead, most of the families were giving priority to the rich and elegant appearance and modern facilities of the houses. Particularly, to the bathrooms, pantry, large setting areas, balcony, parking slots for two vehicles, ad parapet walls with roller-gates are the main concerns. A significant factor found here is that even though, many children of the aged are in middle age and reaching their older years at present, they do not plan their future living within a safe and comfortable home, despite that they are hoping to spent the latter part of their lives in the their current homes. This fact highlights that not only the other responsible parts of the society, but also those who are reaching their older ages are ignoring the problems of the aged. At the same time, it was found that more than 80% of old parents do not like to stay at their children’s homes as the living environments in such modern homes are not familiar or convenient for them. Due to this context, the aged in Sri Lanka may have to be alone in their own homes due to current trend of society of migrating to urban living in modern houses. At the same time, current urban families who live in modern houses may have to face adding accessible facilities in their home environment, as current modern housing facilities may not be appropriate them for a better life in their latter part of life.