RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE


Research and Technology Conference is one of the leading research topics in the international research conference domain. Research and Technology is a conference track under the Business Conference which aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Business.

internationalconference.net provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of (Business).

Research and Technology is not just a call for academic papers on the topic; it can also include a conference, event, symposium, scientific meeting, academic, or workshop.

You are welcome to SUBMIT your research paper or manuscript to Research and Technology Conference Track will be held at “Business Conference in San Francisco, United States in June 2020” - “Business Conference in Paris, France in July 2020” - “Business Conference in New York, United States in August 2020” - “Business Conference in Tokyo, Japan in September 2020” - “Business Conference in Zürich, Switzerland in September 2020” - “Business Conference in Barcelona, Spain in October 2020” - “Business Conference in San Francisco, United States in November 2020” - “Business Conference in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2020” - “Business Conference in Singapore, Singapore in November 2020” - “Business Conference in Bangkok, Thailand in December 2020” - “Business Conference in Paris, France in December 2020” - “Business Conference in London, United Kingdom in February 2021” - “Business Conference in Barcelona, Spain in April 2021” - “Business Conference in Istanbul, Turkey in May 2021” - “Business Conference in San Francisco, United States in June 2021” - “Business Conference in Paris, France in July 2021” - “Business Conference in New York, United States in August 2021” - “Business Conference in Tokyo, Japan in September 2021” - “Business Conference in Zürich, Switzerland in September 2021” - “Business Conference in Barcelona, Spain in October 2021” - “Business Conference in San Francisco, United States in November 2021” - “Business Conference in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2021” - “Business Conference in Singapore, Singapore in November 2021” - “Business Conference in Bangkok, Thailand in December 2021” - “Business Conference in Paris, France in December 2021” .

Research and Technology is also a leading research topic on Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, Zenedo, OpenAIRE, BASE, WorldCAT, Sherpa/RoMEO, Elsevier, Scopus, Web of Science.

Final Call

IX. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

JUNE 05 - 06, 2020
SAN FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES

X. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

JULY 20 - 21, 2020
PARIS, FRANCE

XI. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

AUGUST 10 - 11, 2020
NEW YORK, UNITED STATES

XII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

SEPTEMBER 10 - 11, 2020
TOKYO, JAPAN

XIII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

SEPTEMBER 16 - 17, 2020
ZÜRICH, SWITZERLAND

XIV. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

OCTOBER 21 - 22, 2020
BARCELONA, SPAIN

XV. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 02 - 03, 2020
SAN FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 05, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20BC11US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XVI. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 12 - 13, 2020
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 05, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20BC11TR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XVII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 19 - 20, 2020
SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 19, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20BC11SG
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XVIII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 15 - 16, 2020
BANGKOK, THAILAND

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline November 17, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20BC12TH
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XIX. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 28 - 29, 2020
PARIS, FRANCE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline November 26, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 20BC12FR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XX. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

FEBRUARY 13 - 14, 2021
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline January 16, 2021
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC02GB
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXI. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

APRIL 15 - 16, 2021
BARCELONA, SPAIN

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline March 16, 2021
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC04ES
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

MAY 11 - 12, 2021
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline April 01, 2021
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC05TR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXIII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

JUNE 05 - 06, 2021
SAN FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline May 06, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC06US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXIV. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

JULY 20 - 21, 2021
PARIS, FRANCE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline June 19, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC07FR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXV. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

AUGUST 10 - 11, 2021
NEW YORK, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline July 10, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC08US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXVI. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

SEPTEMBER 10 - 11, 2021
TOKYO, JAPAN

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline August 10, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC09JP
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXVII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

SEPTEMBER 16 - 17, 2021
ZÜRICH, SWITZERLAND

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline August 17, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC09CH
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXVIII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

OCTOBER 21 - 22, 2021
BARCELONA, SPAIN

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline September 22, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC10ES
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXIX. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 02 - 03, 2021
SAN FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 05, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC11US
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXX. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 12 - 13, 2021
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 05, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC11TR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXXI. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

NOVEMBER 19 - 20, 2021
SINGAPORE, SINGAPORE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline October 19, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC11SG
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXXII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 15 - 16, 2021
BANGKOK, THAILAND

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline November 17, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC12TH
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder

XXXIII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 28 - 29, 2021
PARIS, FRANCE

  • Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission Deadline June 15, 2020
  • Notification of Acceptance/Rejection Deadline June 30, 2020
  • Final Paper and Early Bird Registration Deadline November 26, 2020
  • CONFERENCE CODE: 21BC12FR
  • One Time Submission Deadline Reminder
FINISHED

I. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

MARCH 19 - 20, 2019
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

FINISHED

II. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

JUNE 26 - 27, 2019
PARIS, FRANCE

FINISHED

III. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

AUGUST 21 - 22, 2019
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

FINISHED

IV. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

OCTOBER 08 - 09, 2019
NEW YORK, UNITED STATES

FINISHED

V. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 12 - 13, 2019
ROME, ITALY

FINISHED

VI. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

FEBRUARY 13 - 14, 2020
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

FINISHED

VII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

APRIL 15 - 16, 2020
BARCELONA, SPAIN

FINISHED

VIII. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CONFERENCE

MAY 11 - 12, 2020
ISTANBUL, TURKEY

Business Conference Call For Papers are listed below:

Previously Published Papers on "Research and Technology Conference"

  • Knowledge Management in Academic: A Perspective of Academic Research Contribution to Economic Development of a Nation
    Authors: Hilary J. Watsilla, Narasimha R. Vajjhala, Keywords: Knowledge creation, academic research, knowledge management, information and communication technology, research, university. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has made information access easier and affordable. Academic research has also benefited from this, with online journals and academic resource readily available by the click of a button. However, there are limited ways of assessing and controlling the quality of the academic research mostly in public institution. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a significant number of universities and young population. The quality of knowledge created by academic researchers, however, needs to be evaluated due to the high number of predatory journals published by academia. The purpose of this qualitative study is to look at the knowledge creation, acquisition, and assimilation process by academic researchers in public universities in Nigeria. Qualitative research will be carried out using in-depth interviews and observations. Academic researchers will be interviewed and absorptive capacity theory will be used as the theoretical framework to guide the research. The findings from this study should help understand the impact of ICT on the knowledge creation process in academic research and to understand how ICT can affect the quality of knowledge produced by researchers. The findings from this study should help add value to the existing body of knowledge on the quality of academic research, especially in Africa where there is limited availability of quality academic research. As this study is limited to Nigerian universities, the outcome may not be generalized to other developing countries.
  • Collaborative Reflexive/Reflective Teaching and Action Research in TESL
    Authors: O. F. Elkommos, Keywords: Action research, addressing differentiation, collaborative teaching, reflective teaching and learning, reflexive learning, reflexive teaching, self-development, self-evaluation, TESL. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) has become a very rich area of research. Practitioners or teachers of English as a foreign or a second language are now promoting both collaborative learning and collaborative teaching. Students learning a language collaboratively and cooperatively are learning in a better environment of team work where they learn from each other. Further, teaching English collaboratively also creates an enriching environment that is also very enriching to students’ and teachers’ experiences of learning and teaching. Moreover, action research stems from actual teacher concerns and students’ needs. Reflection in turn, on the experience of the material taught and the delivery of material is becoming an integral part of the teaching and learning experience self- evaluation and self-development. In this case, the concern of the research field in the area of TESL will be the development of teaching delivery, material and quality of learning. In the present research, the TESL module taught to year two students in the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, British University in Egypt (BUE) will be evaluated reflexively by the students and teachers. The module was taught to students in two different specialisms. It was taught and delivered through collaborative teaching and was evaluated by both teachers and students as very successful and enjoyable. The reflections of both teachers and students as well as student results confirm that it was a success.
  • CybeRisk Management in Banks: An Italian Case Study
    Authors: E. Cenderelli, E. Bruno, G. Iacoviello, A. Lazzini, Keywords: Bank, CybeRisk, information technology, risk management. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: The financial sector is exposed to the risk of cyber-attacks like any other industrial sector. Furthermore, the topic of CybeRisk (cyber risk) has become particularly relevant given that Information Technology (IT) attacks have increased drastically in recent years, and cannot be stopped by single organizations requiring a response at international and national level. IT risk is never a matter purely for the IT manager, although he clearly plays a key role. A bank's risk management function requires a thorough understanding of the evolving risks as well as the tools and practical techniques available to address them. Upon the request of European and national legislation regarding CybeRisk in the financial system, banks are therefore called upon to strengthen the operational model for CybeRisk management. This will require an important change with a more intense collaboration with the structures that deal with information security for the development of an ad hoc system for the evaluation and control of this type of risk. The aim of the work is to propose a framework for the management and control of CybeRisk that will bridge the gap in the literature regarding the understanding and consideration of CybeRisk as an integral part of business management. The IT function has a strong relevance in the management of CybeRisk, which is perceived mainly as operational risk, but with a positive tendency on the part of risk management to the identification of CybeRisk assessment methods that are increasingly complete, quantitative and able to better describe the possible impacts on the business. The paper provides answers to the research questions: Is it possible to define a CybeRisk governance structure able to support the comparison between risk and security? How can the relationships between IT assets be integrated into a cyberisk assessment framework to guarantee a system of protection and risks control? From a methodological point of view, this research uses a case study approach. The choice of “Monte dei Paschi di Siena” was determined by the specific features of one of Italy’s biggest lenders. It is chosen to use an intensive research strategy: an in-depth study of reality. The case study methodology is an empirical approach to explore a complex and current phenomenon that develops over time. The use of cases has also the advantage of allowing the deepening of aspects concerning the "how" and "why" of contemporary events, on which the scholar has little control. The research bases on quantitative data and qualitative information obtained through semi-structured interviews of an open-ended nature and questionnaires to directors, members of the audit committee, risk, IT and compliance managers, and those responsible for internal audit function and anti-money laundering. The added value of the paper can be seen in the development of a framework based on a mapping of IT assets from which it is possible to identify their relationships for purposes of a more effective management and control of cyber risk.
  • Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions
    Authors: Juha Kettunen, Keywords: Higher education, network, research and development, strategic management. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3593148 Abstract: The study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions and the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented from the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high-quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.
  • The Use of Webquests in Developing Inquiry Based Learning: Views of Teachers and Students in Qatar
    Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Carol Murphy, Nigel Calder, Nasser Mansour, Keywords: Digital technology, inquiry-based learning, mathematics and science education, professional development. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: This paper reports on an aspect of e-learning in developing inquiry-based learning (IBL). We present data on the views of teachers and students in Qatar following a professional development programme intended to help teachers implement IBL in their science and mathematics classrooms. Key to this programme was the use of WebQuests. Views of the teachers and students suggested that WebQuests helped students to develop technical skills, work collaboratively and become independent in their learning. The use of WebQuests also enabled a combination of digital and non-digital tools that helped students connect ideas and enhance their understanding of topics.
  • A Weighted Group EI Incorporating Role Information for More Representative Group EI Measurement
    Authors: Siyu Wang, Anthony Ward, Keywords: Emotional intelligence, EI, Group EI, multi-method research, teamwork. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3462111 Abstract: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a well-established personal characteristic. It has been viewed as a critical factor which can influence an individual's academic achievement, ability to work and potential to succeed. When working in a group, EI is fundamentally connected to the group members' interaction and ability to work as a team. The ability of a group member to intelligently perceive and understand own emotions (Intrapersonal EI), to intelligently perceive and understand other members' emotions (Interpersonal EI), and to intelligently perceive and understand emotions between different groups (Cross-boundary EI) can be considered as Group emotional intelligence (Group EI). In this research, a more representative Group EI measurement approach, which incorporates the information of the composition of a group and an individual’s role in that group, is proposed. To demonstrate the claim of being more representative Group EI measurement approach, this study adopts a multi-method research design, involving a combination of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to establish a metric of Group EI. From the results, it can be concluded that by introducing the weight coefficient of each group member on group work into the measurement of Group EI, Group EI will be more representative and more capable of understanding what happens during teamwork than previous approaches.
  • Researching International PhD Algerian Students’ Communication Challenges in Speaking When Discussing and Interacting with Their British Peers: A Researcher’s Interpretive Perspective through the Use of Semi-Structured Interview
    Authors: H. Maita, Keywords: EFL, communication, interaction, interpretive research. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3462087 Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of the speaking challenges that the Algerian PhD students experience during their studies abroad, particularly in UK territory; more specifically, this study describes how these students may deal with such challenges and whether the cultural differences is one core reason in such dilemma or not. To this end, an understanding and interpretation of what actually encompasses both linguistic interference and cultural differences are required. Throughout the paper there is an attempt to explain the theoretical basis of the interpretive research and to theoretically discuss the pivotal use of the interview, as a data collection tool, in interpretive research. Thus, the central issue of this study is to frame the theoretical perspective of the interpretive research through the discussion of PhD Algerian’s communication and interaction challenges in the EFL context. This study is a corner stone for other research studies to further investigate the issue related to communication challenges because no specific findings will be pointed out in this research.
  • Residential and Care Model for Elderly People Based on “Internet Plus”
    Authors: Haoyi Sheng, Keywords: Ageing tendency, "Internet plus", community intelligent elderly care, elderly care service model, technology. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3462073 Abstract: China's aging tendency is becoming increasingly severe, which leads to the embarrassing situation of "getting old before getting wealthy". The traditional pension model does not comply with the need of today. Relying on "Internet Plus", it can efficiently integrate information and resources and meet the personalized needs of elderly care. It can reduce the operating cost of community elderly care facilities and lay a technical foundation for providing better services for the elderly. The key for providing help for the elderly in the future is to effectively integrate technology, make good use of technology, and improve the efficiency of elderly care services. The effective integration of traditional home care, community care, intelligent elderly care equipment and medical resources to create the "Internet Plus" community intelligent pension service mode has become the future development trend of aging care. The research method of this paper is to collect literature and conduct theoretical research on community pension firstly. Secondly, the combination of suitable aging design and "Internet Plus" is elaborated through research. Finally, this paper states the current level of intelligent technology in old-age care and looks into the future by understanding multiple levels of "Internet Plus". The development of community intelligent pension mode and content under "Internet Plus" has enormous development potential. In addition to the characteristics and functions of ordinary houses, residential design of endowment housing has higher requirements for comfort and personalization, and the people-oriented is the principle of design.
  • The Role of Branding for Success in the Georgian Tea Market
    Authors: Maia Seturi, Tamari Todua, Keywords: Marketing research, customer behavior, brand, successful brand. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: Economic growth is seen as the increase in the production capacity of a country. It enables a country to produce more and more material wealth and social benefits. Today, the success of any product on the market is closely related to the issue of branding. The brand is a source of information for a user/consumer, which helps to simplify the choice of goods and reduce consumer risk. The paper studies the role of branding in order to promote Georgian tea brands. The main focus of the research is directed to consumer attitudes regarding Georgian tea brands. The methodology of the paper is based on marketing research. The findings study revealed that the majority of consumers prefer foreign tea brands. The final part of the article presents the main recommendations.
  • Identification of Risks Associated with Process Automation Systems
    Authors: J. K. Visser, H. T. Malan, Keywords: Distributed control system, identification of risks, information technology, process automation system. DOI:10.5281/zenodo. Abstract: A need exists to identify the sources of risks associated with the process automation systems within petrochemical companies or similar energy related industries. These companies use many different process automation technologies in its value chain. A crucial part of the process automation system is the information technology component featuring in the supervisory control layer. The ever-changing technology within the process automation layers and the rate at which it advances pose a risk to safe and predictable automation system performance. The age of the automation equipment also provides challenges to the operations and maintenance managers of the plant due to obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts. The main objective of this research was to determine the risk sources associated with the equipment that is part of the process automation systems. A secondary objective was to establish whether technology managers and technicians were aware of the risks and share the same viewpoint on the importance of the risks associated with automation systems. A conceptual model for risk sources of automation systems was formulated from models and frameworks in literature. This model comprised six categories of risk which forms the basis for identifying specific risks. This model was used to develop a questionnaire that was sent to 172 instrument technicians and technology managers in the company to obtain primary data. 75 completed and useful responses were received. These responses were analyzed statistically to determine the highest risk sources and to determine whether there was difference in opinion between technology managers and technicians. The most important risks that were revealed in this study are: 1) the lack of skilled technicians, 2) integration capability of third-party system software, 3) reliability of the process automation hardware, 4) excessive costs pertaining to performing maintenance and migrations on process automation systems, and 5) requirements of having third-party communication interfacing compatibility as well as real-time communication networks.