Back to Page Authors: Than Win Hlaing

Keywords: Myanmar refroms, external and internal forces, ASEAN, CSOs

Abstract: This research studies the recent dramatic democratic transition in Myanmar in the period after the 2010 reforms. It focuses on the role of ASEAN and Western externally, and CSOs internally. The research will touch on important factors outside of its two main factors of ASEAN and CSOs, externally, for example, the role of China and Western pressures for a more democratic government. Internally there are the ongoing conflicts between the central government and ethnic groups, and Stateless Muslim(known as Rohingya) issues. ASEAN committed to following its common principle of “interference” in the internal affairs to Myanmar applying it flexibly, and finally convincing the military government to accept ASEAN’s invitation to membership, despite the disapproval of major international powers. In the end, ASEAN alone cannot fully provide a climate for national reconciliation, peacemaking, and political transformation to take place. However, by applying its rules judiciously, ASEAN has overall dealt with Myanmar effectively and helped provide some of that climate. A previous ceasefire agreement has been under negotiation since Thain Sein administration until the uprising of 21st Panglong Conferences today and it ’s due to a lack of mutual trust. between the stakeholders. It can be seen that the military still powerful and new government roles under military power and it is still undeniable situation by the 2008 constitution which has clearly state to reserve 25 percent of the parliament seats for military and also any constitutional amendments need 75% of the votes in the parliaments before it can be approved in a referendum. Under Thein Sein 's government administration the country opened its economy, and annual GDP growth began its positive climb. Free social media are emerging as one key to this transition period. Despite its bloody suppression, the 2007 “Saffron Revolution” was another milestone leading to democratic reform. After the disaster of cyclone Nargis in 2008, ASEAN continued to apply its collaborative style of diplomacy with some success, leading to more trust and a more constructive relationship with Myanmar leaders. The role of ASEAN has been guiding the transformation from the military regime to democratic reforms, and it is helping to solve the country’s longstanding political strife with minorities. The current government leader, Aung San Suu Kyi has extensively discussed peacemaking and national reconciliation in the country, but peoples’ unreasonable expectations are an additional obstacle such as ethnic arms conflicts and as well as Stateless Muslims ( Known as Rohingya) issue seriously. In conclusion, in this research, there will be more on current issues presentation, which has the NLD government struggles with internal and external relationships in progress. The Important of the role of the CSOs, and ASEAN and other external influences especially China's relation. No matter how was extremely political and economic issue has been occurring in the past, the people of Myanmar deserve to reemerge for its development and prospects of the country. And It needs sometimes and supports to find the best paths to successful reforms incorporate with internal and external forces.